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首页 > 中国共产党成立100周年特辑


发布时间:2022-07-11 | 来源:当代中国与世界研究院








The National United Front Against the Japanese Occupation

The September 18th Incident in 1931 and the North China Incidents in 1935 brought major changes to China's relations with other countries and to the relations among its classes, and the conflict between China and Japan became the principal issue facing Chinese society. The whole country faced the challenge of Japan's aggression and a grave national crisis. The CPC took upon itself the historic mission of national salvation and called for building an anti-Japanese national united front based on the KMT-CPC cooperation.

In response to the September 18th Incident, the CPC immediately announced its resolve to resist the Japanese aggression and defend China's sovereignty and territorial integrity. The Red Army under its leadership reached a cease-fire with the pro-resistance KMT 19th Route Army and forged an anti-Japanese and anti-Chiang alliance. The CPC also joined the effort to organize the Anti-Japanese Allied Army in Chahar Province. It conducted the resistance in Northeast China through a joint united front, turning the region into the first battlefield of the CPC-led armed forces against the Japanese aggression.

After the North China Incidents, the CPC published the August 1st Declaration. In December, it initiated and led the anti-Japanese movement that emerged on December 9. At the Wayaobu meeting held in the same month, the CPC Central Committee decided that its basic task was to establish an anti-Japanese national united front.

In 1936, the CPC modified its policies according to the changing situation: from opposing Chiang Kai-shek and resisting Japan, to forcing Chiang to resist Japan, and further to allying with Chiang in the resistance. It also worked for the peaceful settlement of the Xi'an Incident, which ended the civil war between the KMT and the CPC. During this period, the CPC collaborated with some patriotic KMT troops and other armed forces in resisting the Japanese aggression. It was the first political party to rise in anti-fascist resistance in China and the world.

In February 1937, the CPC Central Committee sent a telegram to the Third Plenary Session of the Fifth KMT Central Executive Committee, making five proposals and four pledges as an expression of good faith in removing antagonism between the two parties and building solidarity against the Japanese aggression. In the face of worsening Japanese aggression and increasing public anger, the KMT had to accept the CPC's proposal of cooperation. In September, the KMT Central News Agency broadcast the CPC's Announcement on Kuomintang-Communist Cooperation, and Chiang Kai-shek's public speech that followed represented de facto recognition of the legality of the CPC, marking the formal establishment of an anti-Japanese national united front based on the second KMT-CPC cooperation.

This second cooperation was hailed by the Chinese people, the progressive political parties, pro-resistance groups, patriots and overseas Chinese, who also joined the united front through various means. The Chinese nation achieved unprecedented unity, a significant condition for the all-out war of resistance.

Raising the flag of the united front, the CPC became the mainstay in the war against the Japanese aggression. The revolutionary force of the people under its leadership expanded in the resistance and grew into a powerful force in shaping the political future of China. After 14 years of an all-out war of resistance, the Chinese nation defeated the Japanese invaders. The national united front was an important guarantor of this victory.