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发布时间:2022-07-13 | 来源:当代中国与世界研究院






The First KMT-CPC Cooperation

At its Third National Congress held in June 1923, the CPC adopted the policy of cooperation with the Kuomintang (KMT or the Nationalist Party), whereby CPC members could join the KMT in their individual capacity. This decision was in line with Marxist-Leninist principles and Comintern instructions, and was based on an analysis of China's conditions and nature of its revolution. It settled disputes inside the Party in its early days on how to work with the KMT, and enabled the CPC to unite all available forces to fulfill the tasks of the anti-imperialist and anti-feudal democratic revolution.

From January 20 to 30, 1924, the KMT held its First National Congress in Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, with CPC support. The congress was presided over by Sun Yat-sen (1866-1925). Of the 165 participants, more than 20 were CPC members. These included: Li Dazhao, Tan Pingshan (1886-1956), Lin Boqu (1886-1960), Zhang Guotao, Qu Qiubai (1899-1935), Mao Zedong and Li Lisan (1899-1967).

The congress reviewed and passed a manifesto that restated Sun's "Three People's Principles" – nationalism, democracy and the people's livelihood, and introduced three major policies, known as the "New Three People's Principles," – alliance with Russia, cooperation with the Communist Party of China, and assistance to the peasants and workers. This was compatible with the political program of the CPC at this stage, and it became the political foundation for the first period of KMT-CPC cooperation.

The congress also decided to allow the members of the Communist Party and the Socialist Youth League to join the KMT in their capacity as individuals.

The First KMT National Congress marked the beginning of the first period of cooperation between the KMT and the CPC.

This was a victory for the young CPC in implementing its democratic revolutionary program and democratic united front policy, and a major historic achievement of Sun Yat-sen in his later years in promoting the Chinese revolution. Both parties needed to pool their efforts to fight imperialism and feudal warlords and boost their own development.

Following the establishment of KMT-CPC cooperation, the first wave of revolutionary sentiment swept China. This promoted the movements of the workers and peasants, and began a new stage of the anti-imperialist and anti-feudal revolution. The Northern Expedition by the revolutionary army from late 1926 to early 1927 swept across a large area of the country and stirred nationwide anti-imperialist passion and patriotism. The three armed uprisings of the workers in Shanghai against local warlords and the peasants' movement advanced the cause of the national revolution.

Along with the revolutionary upsurge, the struggle for leadership within the united front intensified. After Sun Yat-sen passed away in March 1925, KMT right-wingers attempted to seize power through a series of violent incidents. The new right-wingers and new warlords represented by Chiang Kai-shek (1887-1975) accelerated their anti-revolutionary expansion.

In 1927, with the counter-revolutionary coup d'état of April 12 in Shanghai, Chiang carried out a KMT purge of Communists. On July 15, the Wang Jingwei (1883-1944) group began to arrest and slaughter large numbers of CPC members and revolutionary supporters in Wuhan. These activities eventually caused the failure of the Great Revolution and the complete collapse of the first KMT-CPC cooperation.